Six Types of Training and Development Techniques
1.On-the-job Training and Lectures
The 2 most steadily used kinds of training are on-the-job training and lectures, though little research exists as to the effectiveness of either. It is normally unimaginable to teach somebody everything she needs to know at a location away from the workplace. Thus on-the-job training often supplements different kinds of training, e.g., classroom or off-site training; however on-the-job training is frequently the only form of training. It is normally informal, which means, sadly, that the trainer doesn’t concentrate on the training as much as she should, and the trainer may not have a well-articulated picture of what the novice needs to learn.
On-the-job training shouldn’t be profitable when used to avoid developing a training program, although it may be an efficient part of a well-coordinated training program.
Lectures are used because of their low price and their capacity to achieve many people. Lectures, which use one-way communication versus interactive learning strategies, are a lot criticized as a training device.
2. Programmed Instruction (PI)
These devices systematically present info to the learner and elicit a response; they use reinforcement ideas to promote appropriate responses. When PI was initially developed within the Nineteen Fifties, it was thought to be useful only for fundamental subjects. In the present day the method is used for skills as diverse as air site visitors control, blueprint reading, and the analysis of tax returns.
3. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)
With CAI, students can study at their own tempo, as with PI. Because the student interacts with the pc, it is believed by many to be a more dynamic learning device. Educational alternatives might be quickly chosen to suit the student’s capabilities, and performance can be monitored continuously. As instruction proceeds, data are gathered for monitoring and improving performance.
4. Audiovisual Techniques
Each television and film extend the range of skills that may be taught and the way info could also be presented. Many systems have digital blackboards and slide projection equipment. The usage of techniques that combine audiovisual systems corresponding to closed circuit television and telephones has spawned a new term for this type of training, teletraining. The feature on ” Sesame Street ” illustrates the design and evaluation of one in every of television’s favorite children’s program as a training device.
Training simulations replicate the essential characteristics of the real world which might be necessary to produce both learning and the transfer of new knowledge and skills to application settings. Each machine and other types of simulators exist. Machine simulators usually have substantial degrees of. physical fidelity; that is, they symbolize the real world’s operational equipment. The primary goal of simulation, nevertheless, is to produce psychological fidelity, that’s, to reproduce in the training those processes that will probably be required on the job. We simulate for a number of reasons, together with to control the training surroundings, for safety, to introduce feedback and different learning principles, and to reduce cost.
6. Enterprise games
They’re the direct progeny of war games which were used to train officers in combat strategies for hundreds of years. Nearly all early business games were designed to teach primary enterprise skills, however more current games also embrace interpersonal skills. Monopoly is likely to be considered the quintessential business game for young capitalists. It’s probably the first place youngsters discovered the words mortgage, taxes, and go to jail.
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